Testosterone Therapy – MANopause or Marketing?

Fatigue, weight gain, decreased sex drive and depression are very common complaints, especially as men age.  There are many diagnoses associated with such symptoms – obesity, diabetes and hypothyroidism are some examples.  They can also be associated with hypogonadism – which in men – is low testosterone or LowT.

What is Testosterone?

Testosterone is a hormone made in the testicles.  It’s production is controlled by other hormones in the pituitary gland, which senses the testosterone level in the body and directs production.  Testosterone is involved in genital development and other sex characteristics such as deepening of the voice, body hair, and sex drive.

How is Testosterone measured?

Testosterone is measured with a blood test.  There are two values that can be checked – total testosterone and free testosterone.  Free testosterone is the amount of hormone circulating that is directly and instantly available to the body, and not tied to another molecule in the system.

Normal levels of total testosterone range from 300-800 mg/dl.  One of the difficulties in measuring testosterone is that the value varies throughout the day and can be affected by a recent meal, exercise or the amount sleep you had prior to the test!

How is Testosterone supplemented?

Testosterone is not digestible, so it must be administered topically as a patch, cream, or gel, or injected into a muscle.  Each method has its pluses and minuses.

Topical medications are convenient, but may cause skin irritation.  There may be irregular absorption of the testosterone through the skin.  Also, if the testosterone is not completely absorbed it can be transferred to someone else’s skin – an important consideration if there are children or women (especially if pregnant).

Injections deliver a more precise dose and there is no risk of transferring the medication to someone else, but an injection every 2-4 weeks may be painful and less convenient – whether done at home or in a physician’s office.

How does Low Testosterone develop?

Damage or dysfunction of the testicles or pituitary gland either from medications, tumors or other problems can cause low testosterone.    Anabolic steroids – those used as performance enhancing drugs in sports – can lower testosterone levels among other side effects.  It was for severe deficiency around early development or testicular damage that synthetic testosterone was initially prescribed and FDA approved for – not for helping aging men feel 30 again.

Testosterone levels normally begin to decline by about 1% per year after age 30 – but this is very variable.  This decline, especially when blood tests became routinely available to check testosterone levels, gave rise to terms like andropause, male menopause or manopause.  In the past 10 years, testosterone use in men over 40 has quadrupled, and has become a multibillion dollar industry.

Similar to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women, restoring hormone levels to an earlier age has been marketed as a way of turning back the clock, restoring youth and vigor – and treating some very common, non-specific symptoms.  It wasn’t until after decades of HRT that a large study was done demonstrating that rather than helping improve women’s health, HRT increased rates of heart attacks, stroke, breast cancer and endometrial cancer!

Recently, several studies have been published linking testosterone therapy with an increased risk of heart disease.  These studies have called into question the wisdom of testosterone supplementation in the absence of true hypogonadism.  One study found that in men 65 and older the risk of a heart attack doubles in the first 90 days after starting treatment and goes up by 2-3 times in men under 65 with a history of heart disease.  This and other studies have prompted the FDA to review the safety of testosterone therapy and a large study similar to the one done for HRT is now underway to determine the benefits and harms of testosterone therapy.

How does this affect MY practice?

As with most diagnoses, a good history of symptoms is essential to determine their cause.  How long symptoms have been present, what seems to improve them, what else is going on in one’s life all contribute to weight gain, sex drive, energy and mood.  Diet and exercise habits need to be explored as changes  can have a huge impact on well-being, including raising testosterone levels without supplementation.

After discussing symptoms and a physical exam is performed, lab tests can be ordered.  I usually check a total testosterone first – it is much less expensive and the results come back faster.  If it is low or borderline, adding the free testosterone can be helpful to confirm or rule out the diagnosis.

Once all the data is back, we can review both symptoms and data together to decide if testosterone supplementation is likely to improve how one feels or if there is a different, more likely diagnosis.    Prior to starting supplementation I always check a blood count, cholesterol level, liver, kidney  and sugar tests as well as a PSA.  Supplementation can effect all these things which in turn can have health consequences.  For example, testosterone can cause the prostate to grow and may unmask an undiagnosed cancer – which is why supplementation therapy needs to be monitored.

At follow-up visits we assess the effect of treatment on both testosterone levels and most importantly, symptoms.  If the levels normalize and there is no change in how you feel, then as I wrote in an earlier post (What is a Diagnosis), treatment should be stopped and the diagnosis reconsidered.

The new evidence about the increased risk of heart attack will increase the conversations I have with my patients, especially those over 65 or with a history of heart disease, and likely increase how closely they are monitored.

Numbers from a lab without the context of symptoms don’t make a diagnosis.  Symptoms without the correlation of lab results often can not make a diagnosis.  Treating either in isolation does not improve health.  When used together, solutions can be found.

The path to wellness begins with a proper diagnosis

Thyroid Disease – a little gland – big effects

January was Thyroid Disease Awareness month and thyroid disorders are very common.  Unfortunately, it’s usually not the answer to the 10 pounds you are trying to lose.

What is the Thyroid?

The thyroid is a gland located in the neck near the “Adam’s Apple”.  It’s job is to produce Thyroid Hormone (T4, T3) – which helps set your metabolism and plays a role in almost all of your bodies’ functions.
Your thyroid gland is regulated by another gland called the Pituitary Gland, located in the brain. The pituitary acts as a thermostat to control the thyroid – the technical term for this is a “negative feedback loop.”  The pituitary measures the amount of thyroid hormone in the body.  Based on this measurement, it secretes either more or less Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) telling the thyroid gland to increase or decrease thyroid hormone production.  So TSH goes up when the pituitary senses low levels of thyroid hormone and goes down for high levels.  That is why when your thyroid is tested, the doctor looks at both the level of thyroid hormone in you blood as well as the TSH level.  This allows assessment not only of how your thyroid gland is working, but also how hard it is working to maintain a level.
Based on the values of the TSH and T4 we can begin to tell if the problem is in the thyroid gland itself or in the pituitary gland regulating your levels.  Testing T3 levels can be helpful when the TSH/T4 levels are borderline or someone’s symptoms and the test results don’t make sense – but most people can be diagnosed and managed without it.

Thyroid Disorders

There can be structural issues of the thyroid – nodules, cysts and tumors (both cancerous and benign).  These may or may not affect the overall functioning of the thyroid, but may be felt on physical exam or found when evaluating other neck issues.  I can write more about those issues in a future post if people are interested.  The remainder of this article will focus on the two major functional thryoid disorders – hypothyroid (underactive) and hyperthyroid (overactive).  There can be many causes of of hypo- and hyper- thyroidism, which is part of the challenge – determining your diagnosis – specifically what is your thyroid issue?

Hypothyroidism

This is the most common of the functional thyroid disorders.  Hypothyroidism means an underactive thyroid gland.  Symptoms include fatigue, constipation, dry skin and hair, weight gain, swelling, depression or change in concentration.  The symptoms can also be variable.  Many people are diagnosed with minor hypothyroidism (called subclinical) when their tests are abnormal during a routine exam.  There are many causes of hypothyroidism.
If the pituitary gland is not working properly and cannot produce TSH, then the thyroid gland, although normal, will not produce thyroid hormone.  This is usually due to an abnormal growth in the pituitary such as an adenoma (a benign tumor). This type of hypothyroidism occurs in about 1% of cases.
Autoimmune thyroiditis – also known as lymphocytic or Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is the common cause of hypothyroidism.  The body’s immune system recognizes the thyroid gland as foreign and starts to attack it by making antibodies against it.  As the structure of the gland gets damaged, it is unable it produce thyroid hormone and you develop hypothyroidism.  Your blood tests will show a high TSH and a low T4.  There is also a blood test to detect the anti-thyroid antibodies, which, if present, confirm the diagnosis.
Other forms of hypothyroidism are more difficult to find a direct cause for, but they are all diagnosed by a high TSH and a low T4.

Hyperthyroidism

When the thyroid gland is overactive – making too much thyroid hormone – a person is Hyperthyroid.  The most common cause for hyperthyroidism is Grave’s Disease – another autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland.  In Grave’s Disease, the body makes antibodies against the thryoid gland like in Hashimoto’s Thryroiditis, but instead of destroying the gland, these antibodies stimulate the thyroid gland to continue producing thyroid hormone regardless of what the pituitary gland tells it to do.  These antibodies are called Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulins (TSI) and can be tested for in the blood.
The symptoms of hyperthyroidism are feeling keyed up (over caffinated), diarrhea, weight loss, rapid heart rate and hair loss.  Grave’s Disease can also cause the eyes to bulge due to antibodies building up in the muscles behind the eyes.

Treatment

Hypothyroidism is treated mostly with levothyroxine, which is synthetic T4.  It is an exact match for what the body naturally produces, as opposed to earlier treatments which used animal thyroid glands.  There are many dosages available, allowing us to match the dosage given to what your body needs.  We measure success by following the TSH.  Based on your TSH level and how you feel, we can be sure to get the dosage specific to your needs.  There are a small percentage of patients who do not tolerate levothyroxine, and may use  different medications.

 

Hyperthyroidism is treated in a few ways.  Firstly, if a person’s heart rate is very rapid, medication to block the effect of excess thryoid hormone (called beta blockers) can be used to treat the symptoms while treatment to regulate the thyroid gland takes effect.  There are medications called methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU) which can be used to reduce the production of thyroid hormone.  Radioactive iodine can be given to destroy a portion of the thyroid, reducing its ability to produce hormone.  The thyroid gland can be surgically removed as well.  Surgery and radioactive iodine have a high rate of making someone hypothyroid, which would then require lifelong levothyroxine.

How does this affect MY practice

Thyroid tests are something I order as part of general physical exam.  Because the symptoms can be subtle, we can diagnose and begin treating a problem before it gets too severe if we screen for thyroid disorders.  Thyroid tests are also ordered when someone complains of the symptoms of either hyper or hypothyroidism.  When the tests come back abnormal, I order the antibody test – if the cause of thyroid disease is autoimmune it is important to know – as people with one autoimmune disease are at higher risk of developing another.
If a person is hypothyroid, they are usually given levothyroxine, and a TSH level is repeated in about 6 weeks, then, based on those results the dosage is adjusted until symptoms are controlled and the TSH is in the proper range.
Many people ask me about over the counter thyroid supplements instead of prescription levothyroxine.  I generally advise against this for a few reasons:
  • They are not FDA regulated
  • The dosages can not be as finely tuned as levothyroxine can.  They are usually made up from animal thyroid glands and can contain impurities
  • A recent NY Times article quoted a study that showed 9 out of 10 thyroid supplements tested at random contained 2-3 times the starting dosage of thyroid hormone – which should only be dispensed with a prescription
When hyperthyroidism is diagnosed, we immediately focus on controlling the symptoms such as anxiety, heart palpitations and tremor.  Then a discussion as to the best means to control their thyroid gland’s production – medication, radioactive iodine or surgery.
Thyroid problems are very common and can have a large impact on  a person’s sense of well being.  By using a person’s own control systems to dose their medication, we can come very close to restoring their thyroid levels to what their body needs.  Together, doctor and patient can review symptoms, get tests and most importantly, get a diagnosis.  Then a treatment plan and healing begins.

 

The path to wellness begins with a proper diagnosis

Cold, Flu, Allergies or worse – what’s my diagnosis?

I’ve been sick for 2 weeks, nothing is helping!

It is the peak of cold and flu season and it is likely that you and at least 3 people you know have probably said this.  Regardless of the climate you live in, it’s cold and flu season, not to mention allergies.
Do I need antibiotics?  Am I contagious?  Can I fly?
How do we figure out what is the cause of your suffering?  What is your diagnosis?
For these seemingly simple symptoms and problems a proper diagnosis is key.
  • A cold will get better on its own
  • The flu can be treated with specific medication
  • A bacterial infection such as strep throat should be treated with antibiotics
  • Allergies can be treated with specific medications
So calling your doctor for a “z-pak” will only work at best 25% of the time – the rest of the time you may improve around the same time as you finish the antibiotics – not because of it.

What in a history can clue the doctor into your diagnosis?

Some key questions will guide the doctor toward the answer.
  • How long have you had symptoms
  • Fever? Chills? Night sweats?
  • Type of cough?  Nasal congestion
  • Body aches?
  • Are the symptoms worse at night or first thing in the morning?
  • Anyone else sick at home?
Based on the answers to these and other questions, the likely diagnoses can be ranked.  After examining you, the doctor can see if there are other specific signs of infection like an ear infection or pus in the throat, giving more or less support to the diagnoses on their list.  Tests like a strep or flu test can be ordered and a diagnosis made, treatment given, and you can start to feel better and get well!
If you are given the wrong treatment, such as unnecessary antibiotics, you are exposing yourself to medications with side effects, perhaps creating resistant bacteria in your system and NOT improving your health.
Determining the cause of your symptoms, getting the right diagnosis, is essential to giving proper treatment.

How does this affect MY practice?

The key to determining the need for antibiotics is a good history.  There are several factors that lead me to decide what treatment is best for you.

  • How long have you had symptoms?
    • sick for a month or longer suggests allergies as opposed to an infection
    • cold symptoms for more than 10 days may need antibiotics
    • very sudden onset of symptoms should be seen sooner rather than later
  • Were you getting better and then seemed to relapse – this may indicate a second infection
  • Body aches with cold symptoms suggest the flu
  • Do you have a weakened immune system due to other illnesses or medications?

Combining this type of information with the findings on a physical exam and quick office lab tests for strep and flu make the diagnosis and treatment plan one that hopefully helps you feel better with a low risk of side effects!

The path to Wellness begins with a proper Diagnosis.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease – a real pain in the…

December 1-7 was Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) awareness week.  Though I had not launched this blog until after the week was over, those who know me know how important these illnesses are to me and my family.  I have served on the Medical Advisory Committee to the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) both in NYC and Phoenix.  I have run 2 half-marathons (in Las Vegas and Virginia) to raise over $30,000 for the CCFA.  So even though IBD Awareness week has passed, I wanted to acknowledge it and review Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

IBD is an autoimmune disease – meaning the bodies own defenses get altered and attack the intestines and other parts of the body.  IBD affects 1.4 million adults and children in the U.S.  70,000 people are newly diagnosed each year.  The peak age of onset is between 15-30 years old, and about 10% of patients are under age 18.  There is a genetic predisposition to IBD and it can run in families.  It is not clear what exactly triggers the illness in those predisposed.  Current theories revolve around an environmental trigger or an infectious one, or both.
The main symptoms of IBD are abdominal pain and diarrhea, sometimes with blood.  People with IBD can have more than 10 bowel movements per day.  One can imagine the effect this can have on a child in the early stages of development – especially socially.
The 2 most common diagnoses within IBD are Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (UC).  Once thought to be 2 completely different diseases, we have learned that they share some similar features and some patients have features of both Crohn’s or UC.

 

Ulcerative Colitis has the following features:
  • Diarrhea with mucus and/or blood
  • Spasms in the rectum (called tenesmus)
  • Fevers can happen when severe
  • People can usually maintain their body weight
  • Rarely develop tracts from the intestine to the skin (called fistula)
  • On a colonoscopy there are ulcerations (damage) to the surface layers of the large intestine
  • Inflammation and ulceration in the GI tract are only in the large intestine
  • For years it was thought that patients with UC were at increased risk of colon cancer, but recent studies have questioned this.
  • Eye inflammation can occur (called Iritis and Uveitis)
  • A form of arthritis in the spine, (called Ankylosing Spondylitis)
  • Painful, red skin nodules (called Erythema Nodosum)
Crohn’s Disease has the following features:
  • Diarrhea with a fatty consistency
  • Less spasms in the rectum (tenesmus)
  • Fevers
  • Fistula
  • Weight loss
  • On a colonoscopy there can be injury to any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, and the injury goes through to the deeper tissue of the intestines
  • Blockages (strictures) in the intestine from inflammation and scar tissue
  • Eye inflammation (Iritis and Uvititis)
  • Arthritis in the spine (Anklylosing Spondylitis)
  • Painful areas of skin breakdown (called Pyoderma Gangrenosum)
Both Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis have some other associated symptoms, but they are less common.  In addition, the symptoms are not exclusive, as many people can experience either diseases symptoms as part of their illness.

 

Treatments for Crohn’s and UC include medications that reduce inflammation and balance the immune system, They are considered either non-biologic or biologic.  Examples of non-biologic treatments are anti-inflammatory (ibuprofen, naproxen), immune suppressants (6-MP, azithioprine), antibiotics and corticosteroids (prednisone).  Biologic treatments are injected or given intravenously and block certain parts of the immune system like Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF).  Recent studies have looked at some alternative therapies like probiotics (bacteria found in certain foods like yogurt), using certain parasites (worms) to stop the immune reactions in the gut and even a “stool transplant” which is exactly what it sounds like!

 

IBD is diagnosed based on a person’s history of symptoms, a physical examination, and blood tests that can show signs of inflammation and certain antibodies that are common in IBD.  Imaging such as MRI or CT scan can be used and directly looking at the colon by a colonoscopy and obtaining biopsies is standard.

 

Why is the diagnosis important?  If the symptoms and treatments overlap, you may wonder why does making the specific diagnosis of Crohn’s Disease or Ulcerative Colitis matter rather than calling it IBD?  The diagnosis matters because certain treatments are more effective in Crohn’s vs UC and vice versa.  Additionally, since there are other symptoms outside the GI tract that are associated with specific forms of IBD, the proper diagnosis helps a doctor make the association that back pain may be due to Ankylosing Spondylitis rather than a muscle strain, or that rash on your leg may be Pyoderma Gangrenosum and not an infection.

How does this affect MY practice?

As an Internist, I will often be the first doctor someone comes to for unanswered symptoms.  So, in someone who has had ongoing symptoms that may be inflammatory bowel disease, I will order the studies that will either confirm or rule it out.  Since a colonoscopy is a necessary test in making the diagnosis, I will also refer people to a gastroenterologist who has expertise in IBD.

I also care for people who have already been diagnosed with IBD.  They also get colds, need general physicals and other everyday health services.  In addition, they often need information about new symptoms they may be experiencing – is it IBD related or something else?  Is it a side effect to their medication?  For them, I am a resource and a sounding board that sees them as a whole person, and not just an IBD diagnosis.

IBD can have multiple, seemingly disconnected symptoms.  In fact, the average time from the first symptoms to diagnosis is 2-3 years!  When the pieces are put together properly, the puzzle can be put together and reveal a diagnosis.  Knowing where you are starting from frames the conversations you have with your doctor, and help you tell your story and ask the questions you need answered to be an active participant in your healthcare.  Too often people with chronic illnesses are made to feel powerless, that health is beyond their reach and control.  In an illness that is painful, socially awkward and lifelong, information is power and can give a person a sense of control and direction.

 

The path to Wellness begins with a proper Diagnosis.
Helpful links:
Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America – www.ccfa.org
Center for Disease Control – IBD site – www.cdc.gov/ibd
My daughter’s video documentary of the 2010 Las Vegas Half Marathon to benefit the CCFA  –  http://youtu.be/F-1Qkoenv1E

The “new” cholesterol guidelines – what’s really the issue?

For decades people and doctors have been obsessed with cholesterol levels.  Books have been written, diets promoted, medications prescribed – all with the purpose of getting your cholesterol to “goal”.  You get your labs done and your doctor tells you your cholesterol is high.  You are instructed to eat a low-fat diet, exercise more and possibly start a medication.  Often you are not sure which numbers are high, or what they mean.  But you know that high cholesterol is a bad thing, and so you try to follow the doctor’s advice and lower your cholesterol.  
11/12/13 was a unique date – not only the second to last sequential month/day/year in our lifetimes; it is also the day the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) released new guidelines for cholesterol management that recommend treating high cholesterol but not to any specific number.
This represents a change in over a decade of “goal oriented” recommendations which specified a level of bad cholesterol (LDL) to aim for, using multiple medications if needed to get there.
New Guidelines for Cholesterol:
  • Aim for cholesterol to be reduced by half
  • Only use a statin medication
  • Not necessary to add other medications if you don’t get quite there
Why were these changes recommended?
The theory behind the changes is that the guideline committee felt there wasn’t strong enough evidence supporting a specific target.  For example, if a person’s LDL cholesterol is reduced from 195 to 95, is there any real additional benefit in getting to the previous high risk goal of 70? Or is 95 good enough?
So what are the recommendations?
People are broken down into 2 risk groups in terms of deciding if a statin should be used
  1. High Risk:  people with a prior heart attack, bypass surgery, a stent or diabetes should take statins.  Statins are also recommended for those with very high LDL cholesterol (>190)
  2. Future Risk:  those whose 10 year risk of a heart attack is 7.5% or greater.  This number is calculated with a risk calculator that uses cholesterol, weight, blood pressure, smoking and other factors to come up with your number.
The High Risk group is not a  major change in terms of starting treatment.  The change is not recommending a target value for the LDL cholesterol.
The Future Risk group is different – the previous recommendations used a higher 10 year risk 15-20% before starting a statin.
Besides statin therapy, lifestyle changes are a cornerstone of the new recommendations:
  • No smoking
  • A health body weight
  • Exercise
  • A diet with lots of vegetables, fruits and lean protein
Controversy
Not all doctors agree that the 10-year risk is the best guide for starting treatment – why not lifetime risk?  There also have been questions about the risk calculator itself – the formula used appears to overestimate risk – including more people needing treatment than may truly benefit.  In addition, several of the members of the guideline committee quit due to disagreement on the direction the committee was going with their recommendations.  The remaining committee members only considered evidence from very specific types of trials, ignoring other trials that made compelling arguments but did not meet their standard of evidence.  The committee also chose not to include other markers of cardiovascular disease such as LDL particle number, Apolipoprotein B, PLAC testing and LDL particle size.
So how will this affect MY practice?
I think the guidelines are an opportunity to talk to people about their real diagnosis – their risk of cardiovascular disease.  As I have told many patients – to a certain extent, I don’t care what your cholesterol is, I care about you having a heart attack or stroke.  Cholesterol is a marker of how much artery clogging gunk is in your system.  There are several studies that show that the standard cholesterol profile underestimates cardiac risk.  I think that using the LDL particle number (LDL-p) is a better marker for assessing that risk.  If we reduce your LDL-p, your risk for cardiovascular disease goes down.  Statins are a tool (a very powerful one) to reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
I’m also not a fan of 10 year risk as a cutoff for starting treatment – I prefer lifetime risk, as the process that blocks your arteries is ongoing.  If we know 20 years before you have a heart attack that the risk is there, why wait until a heart attack is only 10 years away to start reducing risk?
How do I assess risk?
Risk can be estimated with a good history, a physical and testing.
History:
  • Prior heart attack, stroke or known cardiovascular disease?
  • Family history of heart attack or stroke – a male relative under age 55 or a female under age 65
  • Diabetes
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Smoking
Physical:
  • weight
  • waist size – belly weight is riskier than just being overweight
  • blood pressure
  • leg swelling
Diagnostic Testing
  • Cholesterol Assessment
    • there are several tests for this besides the standard cholesterol (called LDL-c) test which I will be reviewing in a future article in detail.  There have been several studies that show that other tests like LDL particle number (LDL-p) are better predictors of risk.
    • LDL cholesterol particle number (NMR Lipoprofile)
    • Apolipoprotein B (ApoB)
    • LP(a)
    • PLAC testing
    • Cholesterol particle size
  • C-reactive protein
  • Glucose
Once we put together your history, physical and test results we can have a discussion not about your LDL number, but your real diagnosis – your risk of cardiovascular disease.  The goal of that discussion is to reduce your risk of having a heart attack or stroke.
How can we reduce risk?
  • Blood pressure control
  • No smoking
  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Control diabetes
  • Being physically active
  • Control cholesterol
So the benefit of the new guidelines is they can inspire a conversation that leads to a proper diagnosis – not treating a number, but treating cardiovascular risk.

The path to Wellness begins with a proper Diagnosis

What is a Diagnosis? A rose by any other name?

You go to see a doctor with a painful shoulder. You tell the doctor that you can’t sleep because of the pain, and the doctor starts to make assumptions about your symptoms.  Before you get a chance to tell the doctor your story, you are told you slept on it wrong, and given a prescription for anti-inflammatory medication.  You don’t really improve and so you see another doctor for a second opinion.  A full history is taken, and you tell the doctor that you play softball on the weekends and you collided with the catcher while trying to score.  The doctor examines you and tells you that you likely have separated your shoulder.  An x-ray is ordered and it shows a shoulder separation.
Unfortunately, quick, easy answers and assumptions frequently lead to an incomplete diagnosis or a misdiagnosis.  These carry costs – your time and your money spent finding the correct answer, but more importantly, your health – which is why you go to the doctor in the first place.  Your story is like a puzzle, separated pieces that depict your diagnosis – the doctor has to put them together.
Your doctor needs to ask the right questions and listen to you to put your puzzle together.  It is what I am trained to do – make a diagnosis.  But what is a diagnosis?

  • A label
  • A code
  • A starting point for treatment

A diagnosis is a term with medical meaning.  It is comes from a physician’s synthesis of a patient’s symptoms, history, physical findings and laboratory findings.  A proper diagnosis is essential to begin a journey towards Wellness!

How does a doctor approach making a diagnosis?  We start by making a list – called a “differential diagnosis.”  As we take a history from a patient we start listing diagnoses that fit the symptoms.  As more of the story unfolds, the list is adjusted, the order is changed, items added and removed.  Then we examine the patient, and again revise the list based on our findings.

Tests are then ordered to do two things.

  • Definitely remove an item from list.
  • Confirm items on the list.

The approach to testing, however, doesn’t always focus on the most likely – there are other factors that determine the order of the tests.  If being wrong about a diagnosis has severe consequences, it may be tested for first even if less likely.

Finally, all the information gathered from the history, physical and diagnostic testing are put together and the list is put into a final order and a diagnosis is made.

If a treatment works, it confirms the diagnosis choice from the list.  If a treatment doesn’t work, the list needs to be re-examined and the history revisited to see what information was missing or not emphasized.  This is a crucial time in communicating with your doctor – they need to know what you are experiencing.  Based on that re-evaluation new tests may be ordered to further refine the list, and so on, until the final answer is revealed.

So what?  Why is this important?

First and foremost it determines treatment.  A diagnosis of Strep Throat requires treatment with antibiotics; a cold does not.
The diagnosis is what is used by insurance companies to approve tests and medications.
Diagnoses determine life insurance rates!

A diagnosis represents the last piece of the puzzle being put into place; it allows you and your doctor to chart a course of treatment and find direction after the confusion of not feeling well.

Without a proper diagnosis, you wander in the medical field, so remember:

The path to wellness begins with a proper diagnosis

 

Making a diagnosis – Who am I?

As you sit in the doctor’s office for the first time, your eyes note the array of diplomas and plaques on the wall. You have never met this doctor before, but your friend said they were good, or you picked them out of a book, or you were referred by another doctor, and you are about to share intimate details of your life with them. You have questions about how you feel, and you are going to get a diagnosis. But who is the person behind the plaques? What do all those fancy diplomas mean? After all, they call the person who finished last in the medical school class the same thing as the first – “Doctor”. Doesn’t it make sense that you know something about this person who is going to ask you personal questions and examine you? Shouldn’t you know more about this person you call “Doctor”? Well, I think the answer to this question is YES! So who am I? Keep reading…

All doctors are trained to make diagnoses, some within specialities – orthopedists, neurologists, surgeons, etc.  Most diagnoses are first evaluated by a primary care doctor.  There are several specialities that make up primary care doctors – who you see will depend on age, who practices where you live and possibly your gender.  Examples of primary care doctors:

  • Family Practitioner – a physician trained broadly to care for a person from birth to death
  • OB/GYN – a physician trained in women’s health and pregnancy care
  • Pediatrician – a physician who specializes in the care of children
  • Internist – a physician who specializes in the care of adults

How did I get here?

I am an Internist.  How did I come to call myself this?  Who am I behind other than the plaques on the wall? After graduating from college at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, OH, I attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, in the Bronx, NY, earning my MD with Distinction in Research.  I then spent 3 years as an intern and resident in Internal Medicine at New York University Langone Medical Center and Bellevue Hospital in New York City, completing the training to be a licensed physician.  I then served for an additional year as a Chief Resident for my program helping train the recent medical school graduates.  It was during this year that I took and passed an exam to become Board Certified in Internal Medicine by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

 

I joined a prominent medical practice in NYC remaining on faculty at NYU School of Medicine.  During that time I refined my diagnostic skills, continued to train medical students and residents and eventually earned the rank of Assistant Professor of Medicine at the NYU School of Medicine.  After my first 10 years in practice as a Internist, I was tested again by the ABIM as part of a recertification process and again passing a comprehensive exam to remain Board Certified.

 

In 2012, after 13 years with my practice in NYC, my family and I decided to relocate to Phoenix, AZ where I joined Scottsdale Healthcare to bring my skills to a practice in the Arcadia area of Phoenix.  During my first year in Arizona, the American College of Physicians (ACP), which is the national society for Internal Medicine, elected me to Fellowship after a review of my professional work.  Doctors who have the initials FACP after their names have earned this distinction.

 

What is next?

This has been my path so far as an Internist.  I hope I have given you an appreciation of what the journey is like.  Along my journey I have worked with tens of thousands of patients to take the lead in helping them identify risks to their current and future health and well-being; prevent problems, and find the diagnoses that threaten their health today. It is with the realization that a proper diagnosis sets the foundation for all future health issues that I begin The DiagnosisMD blog.  My goal is to explain why a diagnosis matters, shed some light on the process a doctor uses to make a diagnosis, and explore interesting and timely topics in medical news.

So what is an Internist?  The ACP defines it as:

“Internal Medicine physicians are specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.”

Or as one of my patients from NYC used to say, “You are a Doctor’s doctor.”

 

I hope you enjoyed this look into my journey as a physican so far, and look forward to sharing my thoughts and reading your comments along this journey.

 

The path to wellness begins with a proper diagnosis